Appendix:Ingliz talaffuz

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Ingliz[tahrirlash]

Quyidagi jadvaldagi ingliz tili turli tovushlarni ifodalash uchun ishlatiladi MFA va enPR / Ahd ramzlari ko'rsatadi. Qabul talaffuz (RP, Buyuk Britaniya), General Amerika talaffuz (GenAm, AQSh), Avstraliya ingliz (Aue) va Yangi Zelandiya ingliz (NZE) tovushlarni ko'rsatilgan. Boshqa Lahjalari undoshlarga uchun, Vikipediya ko'ramiz Ingliz uchun MFA grafik.

Ushbu jadvaldagi eski versiyasi an rasm mavjud.

Unli tovush[tahrirlash]

Bu unli stol monoftonglar va diftonglar ikkala roʻyxatini koʻrsatadi.

MFA enPR / AHD misollar
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg RP Flag of the United States.svg GenAm Flag of Canada.svg CanE Flag of Australia.svg AuE Flag of New Zealand.svg NZE
ɑː ɑ ɒ ɐː ä father, palm
æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran[1][2]
æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry
æɪ æe ā day, pain
ɑː ɑɹ ɐː är arm, bard
ɛə / ɛː(ɹ) ɛɹ âr hair, there[3]
ɛ e ĕ bed[4]
ɛɹ ĕr merry
i ē ease, see
ɪ ɘ ĭ sit, city, bit
ɪ i city, very, ready
ɪ̈ , ɨ roses
ɪə ɪɹ ɪə ĭr, îr near, here, Sirius
aɪ (ʌɪ) ɑe ɑe ī my, rice
ɒ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɒ ŏ not, wasp
əʊ əʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope
ɔə oɹ, ɔɹ ɔɹ ōr hoarse
ɔː ɔ ɒ ô law, caught
ɔː ɔɹ ôr horse
ɔɪ oe oi boy, noise
ʊ o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot
ʊə ʊɹ ʊə ʉə o͝or, ŏŏr poor, tour, tourism
u ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through
aʊ (ʌʊ) æo ou house, now
ʌ a ɐ ŭ run, enough, up
ɜː ɝ, əɹ ɝː ɜː ɵː ûr fur, bird
ə ɘ ə about
ə ɚ ə ɘ ər winner, enter[5]

Ohangdoshlar[tahrirlash]

MFA enPR / AHD misollar
b b but, web, rubble
ch chat, teach, nature
d d dot, idea, nod
f f fan, left, enough
ɡ g get, bag
h h ham
ʍ (hw)[6] hw which
j joy, agile, age
k k cat, tack
x ᴋʜ loch (Shotlandiya ingliz tilida)
l l left
l̩ (əl)[7] l little
m m man, animal, him
m̩ (əm)[7] m spasm, prism
n n note, ant, pan
n̩ (ən)[7] n hidden
ŋ ng singer, ring
p p pen, spin, top, apple
ɹ[8] r run, very
s s set, list, ice
ʃ sh ash, sure, ration
t t ton, butt
θ th thin, nothing, moth
ð th this, father, clothe
v v voice, navel
w w wet
j y yes
z z zoo, quiz, rose
ʒ zh vision, treasure

Boshqa belgilar[tahrirlash]

A belgisi MFA berilyapti boʻgʻinda oldin joylashtirilgan va undan keyin enPR / Ahd boʻlgan.

MFA enPR
(AHD)
koʻrsatadi
ˈ (ˈa) ʹ (aʹ) primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ (ˌa) ' (a') secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress), as in battleship /ˈbætl̩ˌʃɪp/
a.a a-a boʻgʻinlarda oʻrtasidagi boʻlinish
 ̩ boʻlgani kabi, boʻgʻinli undosh ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ kabi glottal to'xtatish, uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]

Eslatma: EnPR va bosma Ahd belgilari biroz boshqacha. Onlayn, Ahd ular har doim bir xil tovushni ifodalovchi vakili yoʻq boʻlsa-da, ikkalasi ham "deb yozadi.

Adabiyotlar[tahrirlash]

  1. Sometimes transcribed MFA: /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. See bad–lad split for more discussion of this vowel in Australian English.
  3. Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries include MFA: /ɛː/ (Oxford University Press) and MFA: /eə/ .
  4. Sometimes transcribed MFA: /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  5. Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ] or (for transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations) as [ə(ɹ)].
  6. Some phonologists dispute that /ʍ/ is a distinct phoneme in English, and use /hw/ instead.
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 Some phonologists dispute that /l̩,/, /n̩,/, /m̩/ are distinct phonemes in English, and use /əl/, /ən/, /əm/ instead.
  8. Often written /r/, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill.